DR R. KELLNER
For any item at the end of its working life or when it ceases to be usable in its original form the options are generally in accord with an accepted waste treatment hierarchy as above. This is essentially an order of preference for the reduction and management of waste with the primary objective of extracting the maximum practical benefits from products whilst minimising the generation of waste. The application of this hierarchy seeks to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, energy and pollution whilst conserving resources via virgin material displacement.
When applied to batteries that are deemed to be unusable or end-of-life the options most commonly considered are remanufacture, repurposing or recycling which within the context of the generic waste treatment hierarchy are middle ranking options with remanufacture and repurposing being elements of reuse.